INTRODUCTION ON STRING THEORY

Our universe is having a mysterious things.
I often think how this universe formed.
What it consists?
What is the smallest thing which exist?
What constitutes those things?
So new theory emerged..
Its “string theory”.
The earliest version of string theory, bosonic string theory, incorporated only the class of particles known as bosons. It was then developed into superstring theory, which posits that a connection – a “supersymmetry” – exists between bosons and the class of particles called fermions.
String theory requires the existence of extra spatial dimensions for its mathematical consistency.
In realistic physical models constructed from string theory, these extra dimensions are typically compactified to extremely small scales.
Its importance is miracle.
String theory aims to explain all types of observed elementary particles using quantum states of these strings. In addition to the particles postulated by the standard model of particle physics, string theory naturally incorporates gravity and so is a candidate for a theory of everything, a self-contained mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter.
Besides this potential role, string theory isIn addition to influencing research in theoretical physics, string theory has stimulated a number of major developments in pure mathematics.
Like many developing ideas in theoretical physics, string theory does not at present have a mathematically rigorous formulation in which all of its concepts can be defined precisely.
As a result, physicists who study string theory are often guided by physical intuition to conjecture relationships between the seemingly different mathematical structures that are used to formalize different parts of the theory. These conjectures are later proved by mathematicians, and in this way, string theory has served as a source of new ideas in pure mathematics
now widely used as a theoretical tool and has shed light on many aspects of quantum field theory and quantum gravity.first studied in the late 1960s as a theory of the strong nuclear force before being abandoned in favor of the theory of quantum chromodynamics. Subsequently, it was realized that the very properties that made string theory unsuitable as a theory of nuclear physics made it a promising candidate for a quantum theory of gravity. Five consistent versions of string theory were developed until it was realized in the mid-1990s that they were different limits of a conjectured single 11-dimensional theory now known a M-theory.

My view on Physics as a philosophy

    The modern physics itself is based on several works of 19th and 20th centuary physics.
    its application in fields of science and technology remarkable mile stone.
    “SO THE SERIES OF ATOMIC PHYSICS THEORY WILL BE POSTED HERE AS A UNDERSTANDING FORUM TO YOUNG ONES”
    • The electromagnetic spectrum extends from below the low frequencies used for modern radio communication to gamma radiation at the short-wavelength (high-frequency) end, thereby covering wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atom. The limit for long wavelengths is the size of the universe itself, while it is thought that the short wavelength limit is in the vicinity of the Planck length.
    • Until the middle of last century it was believed by most physicists that this spectrum was infinite and continuous.
    Spectrum is the array of colors. When spectrum of these colors are arranged in orderly manner or according to wavelength or frequency. we have different types of spectra available in nature we can classify them as below: based on the region of spectrum:we have visible infrared ultra-violet x-rays onthe basis of appearance of spectrum: continuous Line spectrum Band spectrum
  1. The ancient Greeks recognized that light traveled in straight lines and studied some of its properties, including reflection and refraction.
    Over the years the study of light continued and during the 16th and 17th centuries there were conflicting theories which regarded light as either a wave or a particle.
  2. For most of history, visible light was the only known part of the electromagnetic spectrum.The first discovery of electromagnetic radiation other than visible light came in 1800, when William Herschel discovered infrared radiation.He was studying the temperature of different colors by moving a thermometer through light split by a prism. He noticed that the highest temperature was beyond red. He theorized that this temperature change was due to “calorific rays” which would be in fact a type of light ray that could not be seen. The next year, Johann Ritter worked at the other end of the spectrum and noticed what he called “chemical rays” (invisible light rays that induced certain chemical reactions) that behaved similar to visible violet light rays, but were beyond them in the spectrum.
    They were later renamed ultraviolet radiation.
  3. Electromagnetic radiation had been first linked to electromagnetism in 1845, when Michael Faraday noticed that the polarization of light traveling through a transparent material responded to a magnetic field.
    During the 1860s James Maxwell developed four partial differential equations for the electromagnetic field. Two of these equations predicted the possibility of, and behavior of, waves in the field. Analyzing the speed of these theoretical waves, Maxwell realized that they must travel at a speed that was about the known speed of light. This startling coincidence in value led Maxwell to make the inference that light itself is a type of electromagnetic wave.
  4. Maxwell’s equations predicted an infinite number of frequencies of electromagnetic waves, all traveling at the speed of light. This was the first indication of the existence of the entire electromagnetic spectrum.
  5. Maxwell’s predicted waves included waves at very low frequencies compared to infrared, which in theory might be created by oscillating charges in an ordinary electrical circuit of a certain type. Attempting to prove Maxwell’s equations and detect such low frequency electromagnetic radiation, in 1886 the physicist Heinrich Hertz built an apparatus to generate and detect what is now called radio waves. Hertz found the waves and was able to infer (by measuring their wavelength and multiplying it by their frequency) that they traveled at the speed of light. Hertz also demonstrated that the new radiation could be both reflected and refracted by various dielectric media, in the same manner as light.
    For example, Hertz was able to focus the waves using a lens made of tree resin. In a later experiment, Hertz similarly produced and measured the properties of microwaves. These new types of waves paved the way for inventions such as the wireless telegraph and the radio.
  6. In 1895n Wilhelm Röntgen noticed a new type of radiation emitted during an experiment with an evacuated tube subjected to a high voltage. He called these radiations x-rays and found that they were able to travel through parts of the human body but were reflected or stopped by denser matter such as bones. Before long, many uses were found for them in the field of medicine.

The last portion of the electromagnetic spectrum was filled in with the discovery of gamma rays. In 1900 Paul Villard was studying the radioactive emissions of radium when he identified a new type of radiation that he first thought consisted of particles similar to known alpha and beta particles, but with the power of being far more penetrating than either. However, in 1910, British physicist William Henry Bragg demonstrated that gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, not particles, and in 1914, Ernest Rutherford (who had named them gamma rays in 1903 when he realized that they were fundamentally different from charged alpha and beta rays) and Edward Andrade measured their wavelengths, and found that gamma rays were similar to X-rays, but with shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies.

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thanks for reading.


TO BE CONTINUED IN MY NEXT POSTS,