# MEETING MY HERO OF SCIENCE – CNR RAO ( THANK YOU ICTS )

I’m Grateful to the International center for theoretical sciences (ICTS), For organizing the Lecture by Prof Rao. I’m so happy to Meet him at least see him. i was fortunate enough to see him,  the Government of India announced his selection for Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award in India, making him the third scientist after C.V. Raman and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam to receive the award.

His Lecture at ICTS was on :  Artificial photosynthesis is a promising method for producing renewable energy by use of sun light. Artificial photosynthesis employing the modified Z-scheme of natural photosynthesis can be exploited both for the oxidation and reduction of water. Oxidation of water is successively achieved by the use of cobalt and manganese oxides with the cations in the 3+ state with one eg electron. Hydrogen can be produced by the dye-sensitized photochemical process or by the use of semiconductor heterostructures. In this presentation, ways of splitting water will be presented, followed by recent results obtained on the photochemical generation of hydrogen by different strategies specially those involving semiconductor heterostructures of the type ZnO/Pt/CdS or nanosheets of chalcogenides such as MoS2 and MoSe2 . Other novel strategies for hydrogen generation such as the solar-thermal route based on oxides will also be examined. Once We were fortunate to Be part of Two days Workshop at Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research. We all friends, From SCIENCE stream from SWAMI VIVEKANANDA RURAL PRE-UNIVERSITY went to the workshop. But Its sad that we missed the opportunity to meet the Rao sir, I attached the photo below. with my friend Ravi Kiran. at CNR Rao HALL OF SCIENCE

Thank you ICTS ( International center for Theoretical Sciences ) for organizing such a great lecture by our legendary scientist CNR RAO

This video has been recorded by me, Felt so happy when CNR Rao sir remembered about the theoretical physicist abdus salam, and later he continued his lecture on PHOTOCHEMICAL AND THERMOCHEMICAL GENERATION OF HYDROGEN BY WATER SPLITTING.

https://www.icts.res.in/sites/default/files/INFOASI-2016-12-30-cnr-rao.pdf

Please also refer and watch the complete video by ICTS.
VENUE: ICTS-TIFR, Bengaluru
30 December 2016, 15:00 to 16:00

C.N.R. Rao (Honorary President and Linus Pauling Research Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bengaluru)

Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao  is an Indian chemist who has worked mainly in solid-state and structural chemistry. He currently serves as the Head of the Scientific Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India. Rao has honorary doctorates from 60 universities from around the world. He has authored around 1,500 research papers and 45 scientific books. Rao is one of the world’s foremost solid state and materials chemists. He has contributed to the development of the field over five decades. His work on transition metal oxides has led to basic understanding of novel phenomena and the relationship between materials properties and the structural chemistry of these materials. Rao was one of the earliest to synthesise two-dimensional oxide materials such as La2CuO4. His work has led to a systematic study of compositionally controlled metal-insulator transitions. Such studies have had a profound impact in application fields such as colossal magneto resistance and high temperature superconductivity. Oxide semiconductors have unusual promise. He has made immense contributions to nanomaterials over the last two decades, besides his work on hybrid materials.

# Hubble’s Eye To Reach the Edge of Universe

In 2015, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope precisely measured the mass of the oldest known planet in our Milky Way galaxy. At an estimated age of 13 billion years, the planet is more than twice as old as Earth’s 4.5 billion years.

The ancient planet orbits a peculiar pair of burned-out stars in the crowded core of a cluster of more than 100,000 stars. The new Hubble findings close a decade of speculation and debate about the identity of this ancient world. Until Hubble’s measurement, astronomers had debated the identity of this object. Was it a planet or a brown dwarf? Hubble’s analysis shows that the object is 2.5 times the mass of Jupiter, confirming that it is a planet. Its very existence provides tantalizing evidence that the first planets formed rapidly, within a billion years of the Big Bang, leading astronomers to conclude that planets may be very abundant in our galaxy.

A Revolutionary New Look at How Planets Are Born
##### By Corey S. Powell

HL Tauri, an infant star in the constellation Taurus, is surrounded by a swirling disk of gas and dust. The dark rings mark places where planets are forming. Right there, right now! (Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)

It truly is revolutionary, Or you could call it the holy grail, or the smoking gun–almost any cliche you throw at it works, because this is the real deal. What you are witnessing here is nothing less than the genesis of an entire new solar system, taking place right before your eyes. For some quick context: Ever since Immanuel Kant introduced his nebular hypothesis in 1755, scientists have strongly suspected that planets form in swirling clouds around newborn stars. Over the years the theory has grown far more refined, filled in with supercomputer simulations and with increasingly detailed studies showing that young stars are surrounded by disks of gas and dust, closely matching what the models predict. But this new image, created by the ALMA observatory in Chile, is by far the best look ever at how planets are born.

# ಪ್ರೇಮ ನಾವಿಕ

ಪ್ರೇಮ ಹಡಗಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಪ್ರೇಮ ನಾವಿಕನಂತೆ ನಾನು
ಬರುವರು ಪ್ರಯಾಣಕ್ಕೆ ಕೆಲವರು
ಶುಲ್ಕ ಪಾವತಿಯೇ ದ್ವೇಷತೊರೆ ಅದೇ ಪ್ರೀತಿ ಕರೆ
ಮೇಲೆಂಬುದು ಕೀಳೆಂಬುದು ಇಲ್ಲ

ಎಲ್ಲಾ ನದಿಯ ನೀರು ಸಮುದ್ರವಾಗಿ
ಒಂದಾಗಿ ತೂಗುತಿದೆ ಅಲೆಗಳಾಗಿ …
ಅವು ಸಹ ತಲುಪುವವು ಪ್ರೇಮ ಲೋಕವ
ಆದರೆ ಇಂತಿರುಗಿ ಹೋಗುತವೆ

ಅಲೆಗಳು ದಡಮುಟ್ಟಿದಾಕ್ಷಣ
ಮತ್ತೆ ತರಲು ಪ್ರೀತಿ ಹಕ್ಕಿಗಳನ್ನು
ಪ್ರೇಮಲೋಕಕ್ಕೆ ಎಲ್ಲರನ್ನು ಪ್ರೀತಿ ದಡವನ್ನು
ತಲುಪಿಸಿವುದು ಅಲೆಗಳ ಗುರಿ

ಆದರೆ ನಾವೇಕೆ ನಮ್ಮ ತಮ್ಮಗಳೆಂದು
ದ್ವೇಷಾಬಿಡುವುದಿಲ್ಲ
ಜೀವವಿಲದಿದ್ದರು ಹರಿಯುವ ಜೀವ ನದಿಗಲ
ತವರೂರು ಸಮುದ್ರ

ದ್ವೇಷವಿಲ್ಲದೆ ಬದುಕುತಿಲವೇ ಒಂದುಗೂಡಿ
ಮನುಷ್ಯನಲ್ಲೂ ಹರಿಯುತದ್ದೇ ನೆತ್ತರೆಂಬ ಜೀವನದಿ
ದ್ವೇಷವೆಂಬ ಬುಗ್ಗೆಯನ್ನು ಕುದಿಯುತಾ
ಇದು ಹೇಗೆ ಪ್ರೇಮಲೋಕದ ತವರೂರದಿತು

ಪಾಪತೊರೆಯುವ ನದಿಗಳನ್ನು ಪಾಪಿಗಳಂತೆ
ವರ್ತಿಸುವ ನದಿಗಳಿಗೆ ಹೋಲಿಕೆಯಲ್ಲಿ …
ಹೋಲಿಕೆಯಾದೀತು ಕೆಲವರಿಗಿ
ಪ್ರೇಮ ಮಂತ್ರವನ್ನು ಜಪಿಸುವವರಿಗೆ

ಪ್ರೇಮ ಪ್ರೀತಿಯನ್ನು ಹಂಚುವವರಿಗೆ
ದ್ವೇಷವನ್ನು ತೊರೆದು ಪ್ರೇಮ ನಾವಿಕನಲ್ಲಿಗೆ ಬರುವವರಿಗೆ
ಹೋಲಿಕೆಯಾದೀತು ಅವರಿಗೆ
ಪ್ರೇಮ ನಾವಿಕನಲ್ಲಿ ಬರುವವರಿಗೆ

ಅಕ್ಷಯ್ ಕುಮಾರ್

# Story of Schrödinger – 1

Erwin Schrodinger‘s was a professor at Zurich. his six years At the Zurich would made him to be one of the most famous physicist.  He was a Nobel Prize-winning Austrian physicist who developed a number of fundamental results in the field of quantum theory, which formed the basis of wave mechanics.

He formulated the wave equation (stationary and time-dependent Schrodinger equation) and revealed the identity of his development of the formalism and matrix mechanics.

I have been reading his concepts i found Schrodinger proposed an original interpretation of the physical meaning of the wave function.He spent his lots of time in doing theoretical physics research, later Schrodinger came upon the work of fellow physicist Louis de Broglie in 1925.

In 1924 De Broglie had proposed a theory of wave mechanics.This was an first attempt for physicists across the world to starting an eye on quantum mechanics. and also the the atomic model of Niels Bohr.

In 1927, Schrodinger left his position at Zurich for a new, prestigious opportunity at the University of Berlin, where he met Albert Einstein. He held this position until 1933, opting to leave upon the rise of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Party and the related persecution of Jewish citizens. Shortly after joining the faculty of Oxford University in England, Schrodinger learned that he had won the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics, sharing the award with another quantum theorist, Paul A.M. Dirac. In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech, Schrodinger stated that his mentor, Hasenöhrl, would be accepting the award if he hadn’t died during World War I.

In terms of his writing, Schrodinger published the influential book What Is Life?, his attempt to link quantum physics and genetics, in 1944. He was also versed in philosophy and metaphysics, as evidenced in Nature and the Greeks (1954), which looked at ancient belief systems and inquiries; and his final book, My View of the World (1961), inspired by the Vedanta and exploring belief in a unified consciousness. Schrodinger died on January 4, 1961, in his hometown of Vienna.

A 1989 book on his life was written by professor Walter J. Moore Schrodinger: Life and Thought.

Following his work on quantum mechanics, Schrodinger devoted considerable effort to working on a Unified Field Theory that would unite gravity, electromagnetism, and nuclear forces within the basic framework of General Relativity, doing the work with an extended correspondence with Albert Einstein. In 1947, he announced a result, “Affine Field Theory,” in a talk at the Royal Irish Academy, but the announcement was criticized by Einstein as “preliminary” and failed to lead to the desired unified theory. Following the failure of his attempt at unification, Schrodinger gave up his work on unification and turned to other topics.
As many physicists, Schrodinger had a strong interest in psychology, in particular color perception and colorimetry (Farbenmetrik). He spent few years of his life working on these questions and published a series of
papers in this area:   His work on the psychology of color perception follows the step of Newton, Maxwell and von Helmholtz in the same area. Some of these paper have been translated to English.

can be found in: Sources of Colour Science, Ed. David L. MacAdam, The MIT Press (1970).The philosophical issues raised by Schrödinger’s cat are still debated today and remain his most enduring legacy in popular science, while Schrödinger’s equation is his most enduring legacy at a more technical level. To this day, Schrödinger is known as the father of quantum mechanics. The large crater Schrödinger, on the far side of the Moon, is named after him. The Erwin Schrödinger International Institute for Mathematical Physics was established in Vienna in 1993.Schrödinger’s portrait was the main feature of the design of the 1983–97 Austrian 1000-Schilling banknote, the second-highest denomination.A building is named after him at the University of Limerick, in Limerick, Ireland,as is the ‘Erwin Schrödinger Zentrum’ at Adlershof in Berlin.

# PHYSICS OF MEDITATION – 1 (Metaphysical Journey with Akshay kumar)

Research on meditation concerns research into the psychological and physiological effects of meditation using the scientific method of the western tradition. In recent years, these studies have increasingly involved the use of modern scientific techniques and instruments, such as fMRI and EEG which are able to directly observe brain physiology and neural activity in living subjects, either during the act of meditation itself, or before and after a meditation effort, thus allowing linkages to be established between meditative practice and changes in brain structure or function.Since the 1950s hundreds of studies on meditation have been conducted. Yet, many of the early studies were flawed and thus yielded unreliable results.Contemporary studies have attempted to address many of these flaws with the hope of guiding current research into a more fruitful path.In 2013, researchers at Johns Hopkins identified 47 studies that qualify as well-designed and therefore reliable. Based on these studies, they concluded that meditation appears to be as effective in treating some forms of anxiety and depression as antidepressant medication. Their findings were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in early 2014.The process of meditation, as well as its effects, is a growing subfield of neurological research.Modern scientific techniques and instruments, such as fMRI and EEG, have been used to study how regular meditation affects individuals by measuring brain and bodily changes.

Brain areas that are thicker in practitioners of Insight meditation than control subjects who do not meditate. Graphs show age and cortical thickness of each individual, red= control subjects, blue = meditators. This work has been taken by the National Institutes of Health, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and the AlterMed Research Foundation – Own work

Changes in the brain
Mindfulness meditation also appears to bring about favorable structural changes in the brain.One recent study found a significant cortical thickness increase in individuals who underwent a brief -8 weeks- MBSR training program and that this increase was coupled with a significant reduction of several psychological indices related to worry, state anxiety, depression.Another study describes how mindfulness based interventions target neurocognitive mechanisms of addiction at the attention-appraisal-emotion interface.A meta-analysis by Fox et al. (2014) using results from 21 brain imaging studies found consistent differences in the region of the prefronal cortex and other brain regions associated with body awareness. In terms of effect size the mean effect was rated as moderate. (Cohen’s d = 0.46) However the results should be interpreted with caution because funnel plots indicate that publication bias is an issue in meditation research. A follow up by Fox et al. (2016) using 78 functional neuro-imaging studies suggests that different meditation styles are reliably associated with different brain activity. Activations in some brain regions are usually accompanied by deactivation in others. This finding suggests that meditation research must put emphasis on comparing practices from the same style of meditation, for example results from studies investigating focused attention methods cannot be compared to results from open monitoring approaches.
A 6-week mindfulness based intervention was found to correlate with a significant gray matter increase within the precuneus.[40] Interestingly a positive relationship has been found between the volume of gray matter in the right precuneus and the subject’s subjective happiness score.

A Tibetan Lama was being monitored on a brain scan machine by a scientist wishing to test physiological functions during deep meditation. The scientist said – “Very good Sir. The machine shows that you are able to go very deep in brain relaxation, and that validates your meditation”. “No”, said the Lama, “This (pointing to his brain) validates the machine!”. These days it is commonly understood to mean some form of spiritual practice where one sits down with eyes closed and empties the mind to attain inner peace, relaxation or even an experience of God. Some people use the term as “my gardening is my meditation” or for jogging or art or music, hence creating confusion or misunderstanding.

Coming to the actual topic of today’s post Physics of Chakras. The scientific research on these things were carried out long back. In Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, a chakra is thought to be an energy point or node. By using chakra yoga to keep the energy centers of our body clean, open and balanced, anyone can get access to supreme health and organs of human body working efficiently to their highest possible. According to the ancient, there are 7 major energy nodes.

Below I attached a picture representing the Chakras Chakra positions in relation to nervous plexi, from a 1927 textbook.

Chakra positions in relation to nervous plexi, from a 1927 textbook

In the book Anatomy of the Spirit which was published in 1996 by an American author Caroline Myss describes the function of chakras as follows:

“Every thought and experience you’ve ever had in your life gets filtered through these chakra databases. Each event is recorded into your cells…”.

The chakras are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. New Age practices often associate each chakra with a certain color. In various traditions, chakras are associated with multiple physiological functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing characteristics. They are visualized as lotuses or flowers with a different number of petals in every chakra. The chakras are thought to vitalize the physical body and to be associated with interactions of a physical, emotional and mental nature. They are considered loci of life energy which is thought to flow among them along pathways called nadi. The function of the chakras keep the spiritual, mental, emotional and physical health of the body in balance whenever it goes wrong or sometimes the yogic practitioner experience a difference in life from meditational life to normal life.

Knowledge credit : 1.https://www.myss.com/&nbsp;2.Anatomy of the Spirit: The Seven Stages of Power and Healing 1996. ISBN 978-0-609-80014-0 3.Swami Sivananda Saraswati(1971). The science of pranayama. Divine Life Society. 4.Swami Sivananda Saraswati (1979). Practice of yoga. The Divine Life Society. 5.Can the Excellence of the Internal Be Measured? – A Preliminary Study Pradeep B. Deshpande*1, P. Krishna Madappa2 & Konstantin Korotkov3

References :

# Age of universe

Age of universe

cosmology is the science of universe and large scale structure of it.it begin in studies extensively by the begining of the 20th centuary by Albert einstien.

the general theory of relativity which had sufficient ideology to construct mathematical models of the universe.

and it given strong base by Edwin hubble’s own measurements of hus constant.

The age ofuniverse is approximatly about 13 billion years.

it was in  the midst of  this chaos that the hubble space telescope was launched 1990.the hubble’s space telescope was on the high side implying a rather young universe,also depending on what theoretical mode is accepted.Scientists say the universe could be just 8 billion years old if the hubble constant is precisely 80.

# Interstellar film review-physics today

Review by physics today…
This is the very good review by physics today.this film is purely based on physics.with some emotional characters which will defiantly hit.the film has good sound score.

In 1979, Disney released the first popular science fiction movie that explicitly mentions black holes. Although The Black Hole had   ssome haunting music and fabulous special effects for its time, it also suffered from a leaden script and poor acting. In addition, it was unclear whether the film was meant to be a kids’ movie or a more thoughtful exposition on what people will sacrifice in the pursuit of knowledge. Needless to say, the movie didn’t do well at the box office. Since then, no major motion picture has centered on a black hole and its related physics, until now.
With Interstellar, director Nolan presents an imaginative portrayal of how humanity might leave Earth, the reason why they would do so, and, with the apparent help of beings from another dimension, how a spacecraft could travel through a wormhole. Nolan developed the script jointly with his brother Jonathan and received scientific advice from one of the leading gravitation theorists of our time, Kip Thorne. Nolan is a master storyteller who likes to incorporate complex themes and ideas into his movies. Interstellar continues that tradition with homages to earlier hard science fiction movies, such as 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and Gravity (2013). Unfortunately, as in 2009’s Star Trek, the technique of lens flare is overused as a special effect.
In a pleasantly surprising turn, two of the lead scientists are women who act and behave more or less realistically compared with some other on-screen portrayals—with the exception of one scene late in the movie, involving actor Anne Hathaway. Some more traditional stereotypes surface when the space travelers land on the second planet to explore, a scene which could have been deleted without any negative impact on the story. In fact, the deletion would have served to tighten up the storyline and shorten the nearly three-hour movie by about 20 minutes. Nevertheless, the technology used in making the movie is almost as impressive as the fictional technology employed in the movie’s plot.
On Earth
The opening scene of Interstellar starts quietly with dust raining down on a bookcase inside a house. A toy space shuttle sits there, abandoned, as the dust piles up. The imagery projects two main messages in the first 30 seconds: that environmental conditions are getting worse and that humanity considers space travel one of the ventures it can no longer afford to invest in. The image evokes T. S. Eliot’s famous poem “The Hollow Men,” in which the apocalypse comes “not with a bang but a whimper.”
That message is reinforced by video interviews in which elderly individuals recount the stress, troubles, and difficulty of living through a terrible famine and drought. At first, one thinks they are talking about the 1930s Dust Bowl, then the camera pans over a familiar rectangular shape—a laptop computer—and the viewer realizes that the events being described represent humans’ near future and the characters’ ancient past. The device also provides hope, however, because if the reminiscences are describing the past, then clearly humanity has survived a disastrous calamity—but how?
The environmental disaster on Earth centers on three main problems: Crops are failing due to worsening conditions, dust is everywhere and causing health problems, and a disease called blight is thriving, slowly replacing all oxygen in the air with more nitrogen. How viable is this scenario? There have been famine calamities in the past—for example, in the 1840s Ireland faced a potato blight that wiped out 30% of the population and forced another 30% to emigrate. However, it is extremely unlikely that a single disease could wipe out the whole of humanity. Surprisingly, climate change caused by the burning of fossil fuels isn’t mentioned at all in the movie. It is also suggested that there has been a decline in Earth’s human population (which might explain why people generally look healthy in the movie despite all the problems growing food).
In fact, one historical period that bears similarities to Nolan’s vision is the Roman Empire from about AD 165 to 325. Over that period, the empire suffered a series of plagues that killed more than 50% of the population and caused massive disruption to transportation. Goods that once flowed from every corner of the empire ceased to do so for the next 1500 years. The loss wasn’t only in population but also in knowledge: buildings, art, and engineering never recovered in the Roman or later Byzantine Empires. Towns became smaller and more fortified, food was grown locally, and, eventually, regions disengaged from the empire and went their own way. The one curious—and extremely unlikely—event in Nolan’s version is the disbanding of the military. More believable is the changing of a school district’s textbooks to say that humans never went to the Moon and the restriction of a college education to a select few who can afford it.
Matthew McConaughey plays the main protagonist, Cooper. It is quickly made clear that although Cooper is currently working as a farmer, he is a former NASA pilot and clever with his hands. Cooper has two kids, Murphy and Doyle, and a father-in-law. Unfortunately, his wife died due to the lack of MRIs and the expertise to use them. As the result of a series of initially unlikely occurrences, he finds the remnants of NASA, where workers have a plan to visit another galaxy via a wormhole to check out three possible new homes for humanity.
Cooper and three others are asked to go. Cooper, however, is conflicted as he will have to leave his kids behind. In the meantime, the visionary behind the project, Professor Brand (played by Michael Caine), searches for an equation that could give humanity the ability to control gravity, which would allow Earth’s millions of inhabitants to leave and go into space. Brand, who favors a different poem to describe humanity’s reaction to disaster—Dylan Thomas’s “Do not go gentle into that good night”—also has the best office for a theoretical physicist that I’ve ever seen, with acres of blackboards, rich furnishings, and comfortable chairs. Brand’s decades-long work without success of some sort will probably feel all too familiar to many researchers.
In space
Cooper’s launch into orbit made me wonder if real NASA footage from the Saturn V launches were used, as the quality was astounding. The way the spacecraft handled in space, with silent retro-jets being fired to position it for docking, also seemed based on actual orbital mechanics. The exterior shots of other space-based objects such as planets, stars, and debris also look extremely realistic. The main spacecraft spins at 1 g in order to minimize the human passengers’ bone loss on the two-year journey to Saturn, where the wormhole is positioned. In fact, the only part of this scene that feels unrealistic is the lack of noise. Every astronaut I’ve spoken to has said the International Space Station and the space shuttle were noisy. Ironically, later scenes of the craft are noisier and, hence, more realistic.
To save on resources, the crewmembers are put into hibernation, a technique that doesn’t exist yet but would revolutionize space travel. Finally, they reach the wormhole. It is impossible in the movie to calculate the size of the wormhole but, according to sources close to the movie’s science adviser, they just assumed that the aliens who built it could alter the gravity field around the object, so unlike a real black hole at that location, the wormhole wouldn’t mess up the orbit of Saturn and its surrounding satellites.

(Image: Paramount Pictures)
On the other side of the wormhole is a black hole nicknamed “Gargantua” (see image above). It is probably the most believable object in the movie because of the way it behaves and the relativistic effects it imposes on the crew members who enter its orbit. (Time doesn’t seem to impact the spacecraft systems all that much, to my surprise. The equipment looks as good as the day it launched despite being in space for decades, and I’m not sure the relativistic effect on one of the planets could be totally true.) Apparently the calculations describing the black hole’s behavior and the way it affects light were the main contributions by Thorne (whose book on the subject comes out today). The crew’s descriptions of relativity are spot on, although they may be a bit complex for the general public to comprehend. The planets are interesting and clearly look alien, although the crew members commit some basic errors during their exploration. I think current astronauts would dearly love the flexibility of the astronaut suits in the movie, and everyone would want as members of their crew the two robots TARS and CASE, who, ironically, have some of the best lines in the script.
In fact, my main gripe with the realism in this part of the movie is the way the shuttles are able to reach orbit from the ground with so little available fuel. They must have been using some form of nuclear propulsion, possibly with a SCRAM-type jet to gather fuel from the atmosphere, as some of the planets they visit have higher gravity wells than that of Earth.
Interstellar is a long movie, and I’m not going to spoil the ending except to say that, when the design of a certain space station appeared, I was delighted. I’m torn about the acting, which sometimes gets lost in the scenery, and some aspects of the plot. The scenes from the second planet suggest a last-minute addition to ratchet up the tension and stakes at a point when they were already high enough. If the movie is seen in a theater, those in the audience who have sensitive hearing might want to check that the sound level isn’t too loud and is mixed correctly. My sound meter at the IMAX theater recorded 120 dB at one point, and dialog frequently got washed out by the musical score. The picture was slightly out of focus, too, which didn’t help. As a space nut, I found the movie to be very entertaining. Despite some liberties that require suspension of disbelief on the part of the viewer, this is a movie for adults that seeks to incite wonder at the strangeness of the universe and our place in it. On that level it succeeded.
One final point, if NASA really does want to go to Mars, then the agency is going to need to conduct in-orbit research on rotating spacecraft to achieve the artificial-gravity system used by the craft Endurance in the movie. As far as I know, there are no plans to do so, which suggests we aren’t going to Mars in the near term. Maybe this movie will help change NASA’s mind.
Score: scientific accuracy 6 story plot 6

# Three-step model(PHOTOELCTRIC EFFECT)

In the X-ray regime, the photoelectric effect in crystalline material is often decomposed into three steps:
1)Inner photoelectric effect . The hole left behind can give rise to auger effect, which is visible even when the electron does not leave the material. In molecular solids phonons are excited in this step and may be visible as lines in the final electron energy. The inner photoeffect has to be dipole allowed. The transition rules for atoms translate via the tight-binding model onto the crystal. They are similar in geometry to plasma oscillations in that they have to be transversal.
2)Ballistic transport of half of the electrons to the surface. Some electrons are scattered.
3)Electrons escape from the material at the surface.

In the three-step model, an electron can take multiple paths through these three steps. All paths can interfere in the sense of the path integral formulation. For surface states and molecules the three-step model does still make some sense as even most atoms have multiple electrons which can scatter the one electron leaving.

# important role of supersymmetry in Unification of forces (grand unified theory)

The unification of forces is possible due to the energy scale dependence of force coupling parameters in quantum field theory called renormalization group running, which allows parameters with vastly different values at usual energies to converge to a single value at a much higher energy scale.

It is commonly believed that this matching is unlikely to be a coincidence, and is often quoted as one of the main motivations to further investigate supersymmetric theories despite the fact that no supersymmetric partner particles have been experimentally observed (March 2011). Also, most model builders simply assume supersymmetry because it solves the hierarchy problem—i.e., it stabilizes the electroweak Higgs mass against radiative corrections.

# The Einstein field equations (EFE)

i never tried these equations untill i make my own mathematical approaches to the level of mathematical physics.

i never suggest readers of my blog to not read einstiens field equations,the field equations needs higher mathematics…guys once think about the photoelectric effect ,that was greatest discovery which einstien got nobel prize,but now school childrens learn that and they understand the fundamentals.same way the field equation needs fundemantals(those we won’t study in school)

learning einstiens certain theories give more imagination to the mind,i my self got understand when i tried to learn about einstien special theory of relativity.

The Einstein field equations (EFE) or Einstein’s equations are a set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity which describe the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by matter and energy. First published by Einstein in 1915 as a tensor equation, the EFE equate local spacetime curvature (expressed by the Einstein tensor) with the local energy and momentum within that spacetime (expressed by the stress–energy tensor).

Similar to the way that electromagnetic fields are determined using charges and currents via Maxwell’s equations, the EFE are used to determine the spacetime geometry resulting from the presence of mass-energy and linear momentum, that is, they determine the metric tensor of spacetime for a given arrangement of stress–energy in the spacetime. The relationship between the metric tensor and the Einstein tensor allows the EFE to be written as a set of non-linear partial differential equations when used in this way. The solutions of the EFE are the components of the metric tensor. The inertial trajectories of particles and radiation (geodesics) in the resulting geometry are then calculated using the geodesic equation.

As well as obeying local energy-momentum conservation, the EFE reduce to Newton’s law of gravitation where the gravitational field is weak and velocities are much less than the speed of light.

Exact solutions for the EFE can only be found under simplifying assumptions such as symmetry. Special classes of exact solutions are most often studied as they model many gravitational phenomena, such as rotating black holes and the expanding universe. Further simplification is achieved in approximating the actual spacetime as flat spacetime with a small deviation, leading to the linearised EFE. These equations are used to study phenomena such as gravitational waves.

Similar to the way that electromagnetic fields are determined using charges and currents via Maxwell’s equations, the EFE are used to determine the spacetime geometry resulting from the presence of mass-energy and linear momentum, that is, they determine the metric tensor of spacetime for a given arrangement of stress–energy in the spacetime. The relationship between the metric tensor and the Einstein tensor allows the EFE to be written as a set of non-linear partial differential equations when used in this way. The solutions of the EFE are the components of the metric tensor. The inertial trajectories of particles and radiation (geodesics) in the resulting geometry are then calculated using the geodesic equation.

As well as obeying local energy-momentum conservation, the EFE reduce to Newton’s law of gravitation where the gravitational field is weak and velocities are much less than the speed of light.

Exact solutions for the EFE can only be found under simplifying assumptions such as symmetry. Special classes of exact solutions are most often studied as they model many gravitational phenomena, such as rotating black holes and the expanding universe. Further simplification is achieved in approximating the actual spacetime as flat spacetime with a small deviation, leading to the linearised EFE. These equations are used to study phenomena such as gravitational waves.

The EFE is a tensor equation relating a set of symmetric 4×4 tensors. Each tensor has 10 independent components. The four Bianchi identities reduce the number of independent equations from 10 to 6, leaving the metric with four gauge fixing degrees of freedom, which correspond to the freedom to choose a coordinate system.

Although the Einstein field equations were initially formulated in the context of a four-dimensional theory, some theorists have explored their consequences in n dimensions. The equations in contexts outside of general relativity are still referred to as the Einstein field equations. The vacuum field equations (obtained when T is identically zero) define Einstein manifolds.

Despite the simple appearance of the equations they are actually quite complicated. Given a specified distribution of matter and energy in the form of a stress–energy tensor, the EFE are understood to be equations for the metric tensor g_{\mu \nu}, as both the Ricci tensor and scalar curvature depend on the metric in a complicated nonlinear manner. In fact, when fully written out, the EFE are a system of 10 coupled, nonlinear, hyperbolic-elliptic partial differential equations.

One can write the EFE in a more compact form by defining the Einstein tensor

• The nonlinearity of the EFE makes finding exact solutions difficult. One way of solving the field equations is to make an approximation, namely, that far from the source(s) of gravitating matter, the gravitational field is very weak and the spacetime approximates that of Minkowski space. The metric is then written as the sum of the Minkowski metric and a term representing the deviation of the true metric from the Minkowski metric, with terms that are quadratic in or higher powers of the deviation being ignored. This linearisation procedure can be used to investigate the phenomena of gravitational radiation.